Part 5: Anthropology

Developing a Biblical Worldview

Developing a Biblical Worldview – Part Five: Anthropology

This morning, we move forward into a discussion of anthropology.  The study of man.  And in the Bible there is a distinction made between men and women.  I’d like to highlight some of the differences:

  • What is the difference between men and women?  A woman wants one man to satisfy her every need. A man wants every woman to satisfy his one need.
  • Of course women don’t work as hard as men…They get it right the first time.
  • What do you call a man that lost all of his intelligence?  A widow.
  • Why did God create man first?  Because he needed a rough working model before creating the perfect specimen of the species.

All joking aside, this morning we are going to be discussing the nature of man and by “man,” I mean mankind – humanity and the technical term for this is “anthropology,” which comes from the Greek word for man Anthropos.

Let me preface by saying that I feel very inadequate in this topic; it is not my area of expertise.  So the passion and the zeal and the conviction with which I spoke last week about the end, well, you won’t see that with regard to the beginning because my understanding is currently in flux.  And it is said, when there is a mist in the pulpit there is a fog in the pew, so I apologize in advance if there is a haze out there.  I’m doing my best here to communicate where I’m at currently and I would encourage you to take advantage of our Q&A.

What is the nature of humanity?

  • Are we any different from the animals?
  • Are we evolved complex machines?
  • Are we merely an interaction of physical and chemical properties as some worldviews would say or do we actually have a personality?
  • Are we simply part of the clockwork of the universe?
  • Is there any value, or meaning, or self?

What is the nature of mankind?

BEST WAY IS THROUGH THE STORY OF CREATION & REDEMPTION BUT FIRST SOME FRAMEWORK

MAN IS A SOUL.  NOT THAT MAN HAS A SOUL, BUT HE IS A SOUL. (for biblical backup, Gen 2:7)

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MORTALITY: Mankind is mortal by nature.  I think somewhere this got twisted and backwards.

J.A. Beeth, “Immortality of the Soul,” pgs 53-54:

“The phrase, the soul immortal, so frequent and conspicuous in the writings of Plato, we have not found in pre-Christian literature outside the influence of Greek philosophy; nor have we found it in Christian literature until the later part of the second century. We have noticed that all the earliest Christian writers who use this phrase were familiar with the teaching of Plato; that one of these, Tertullian, expressly refers both the phrase and doctrine to him; and that the early Christian writers never support this doctrine by appeals to the Bible, but only by arguments similar to those of Plato…We have failed to find any trace of this doctrine in the Bible…it is altogether alien, both in phrase and thought, to the teaching of Christ and His apostles.”

But again, we are to develop a biblical worldview, we need to see what the bible says. Only God has immortality

  • Rom 1:22-23 22 Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools 23 and exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images made to look like a mortal human being and birds and animals and reptiles.
  • 1 Tim. 1:17 Now to the Kingeternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honor and gloryforever and ever. Amen.
  • 1 Tim 6:13-16 13 I charge you in the presence of God, whogives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who testified the good confession before Pontius Pilate, 14 that you keep the commandment without stain or reproach until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ,15 which He will [j]bring about at the proper time—He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King ofkings and Lord oflords, 16 who alone possesses immortality and dwells in unapproachable light, whom no man has seen or can see. To Him be honor and eternal dominion! Amen.

COVENANT NOT MATERIAL

We discussed cosmology a few weeks ago and I pointed out that while I do believe that Yahweh was the creator of the literal material creation, I don’t believe that the early chapters of Genesis are a scientific account of the origins of the material creation, but rather tell the story of God coming into covenant with Adam; I see it as a covenant creation.  And one’s cosmology will have a direct effect on his anthropology.  With a literal view of material creation, it makes sense to see the early chapters of Genesis as the literal creation of the first human beings and that whatever is said about them applies to all humanity.  I used to see it that way, but after a lot of study I’ve come to see things a little differently.  I see this creation story pertaining to the first covenant man, not the first human being to live on the planet.

FIRST & LAST ADAM

1 Corinthians 15:45-49 NASB So also it is written, “The first MAN, Adam, BECAME A LIVING SOUL.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. (46) However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual. (47) The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven. (48) As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly. (49) Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.

This text contrasts Adam and Christ.  It calls Christ the “last Adam.”  I see this as referring to two different covenant heads.  There were those in Adam and those in Christ.  Adam was the head of a covenant people and Christ is the head of a covenant people.

IMAGE OF GOD

The image of God is a huge discussion when it comes to biblical anthropology because it lies at the core of the text in Genesis.  And the typical view is that all humans are in the image of God.  I’m not quite so sure that is what Scripture teaches.  The only people I see in the Bible as being in God’s image are Adam and Christ (and by extension, those in Christ).

Adam was created in the image of God as we will see in Gen 1:26-27.

But Seth was in Adam’s image, not God’s.  And until Christ comes on the scene, no one is.

Col 1:15 The Son is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation.

1 Cor 15:49 And just as we have borne the image of the earthly man, so shall we bear the image of the heavenly man.

2 Cor 3:18 And we all, who with unveiled faces contemplate the Lord’s glory, are being transformed into his image with ever-increasing glory, which comes from the Lord, who is the Spirit.

Col 3:9-10 Do not lie to each other, since you have taken off your old self with its practices 10 and have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge in the image of its Creator.

So it seems that Adam was in the image of God, but through his failure in that capacity as we will see he in some sense loses that.  And again, it isn’t until Christ and the new covenant that man is restored to the image of God through the last Adam.

THE STORY

Now I would like to walk through the story of creation and redemption in order to paint this picture and I will bring in additional scripture here and there to clarify points along the way as well as make commentary about some different viewpoints.

Let’s jump right into the text.

When working toward a Biblical anthropology it makes sense to start at the beginningMan is made on day six in the creation account.  Open your bibles to genesis one and we will go from there.

Genesis 1:26ff   26 Then God said, “Let Us make man in Our image, according to Our likeness; and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of thesky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.” 27 God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 God blessed them; and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it; and rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of thesky and over every living thing thatmoves on the earth.” 29 Then God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on thesurface of all the earth, and every treewhich has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; 30 and to every beast of the earth and to every bird of thesky and to every thing that moves on the earthwhich has life, I have given every green plant for food”; and it was so. 31 God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

One view, probably the most popular view, is that this is the creation of the first human beings period, literally.  And with that view, the idea being conveyed in this text is that all human beings are created in the image of God.  And according to this view there is a lot of speculation as to what it means for human beings to be in the image of God.  Some would say it is that they are in fellowship with one another male and female just as the members of the Trinity are in fellowship – let US make man in OUR image.  James Sire says: that humans “thus possess personality, self-transcendence, intelligence, morality, gregariousness, and creativity.

As I pointed out earlier, another way to look at this is that Adam is created in the image of God, but not every human being is.  If you don’t view Adam as the first human being, then that follows quite easily.  The “them” in “let them rule” refers not to all humans, but to those “in Adam” all those for whom Adam is the covenant father, the federal head, the Adamites.

So we have a covenant people being formed here and they are to be God’s image-bearers.  Let me tell you how I understand the image of God and I think it will help if we put ourselves into the context of the Ancient Near Eastern culture.

Each nation had their own god or set of gods and temples in which to serve those Gods.  Those gods (little “g”) were invisible and so there would be images of those gods set up in the temple to serve as a representative of that god.  Think about 1 Samuel 5 with the Philistines and their god Dagon.  When the ark of the covenant was taken into Dagon’s temple, the image of Dagon was found prostrate before the ark.  But covenant man (man in covenant with Yahweh) is supposed to be the image of God, his representation within his cosmic temple – the heavens and earth (more on that in a moment).

Let me share with you what my NIV study notes say.  GK Beale says the same things as do other scholars, but I want to read this straight out of the study notes so that it is clear that this is a widespread understanding and not just something out there in left field.

“Within the realm of his visible creation God places a creature capable of acting as his agent in relationship to other creatures (1) to represent God’s claim to kingship over his creation and (2) to bring its full potential to realization to the praise of the Creator’s glory.  In the ancient Near East, kings marked their conquest of lands by setting up images of themselves in the conquered territories as a sign of their authority.”

So God as King, places his agent Adam there as his vice-regent, so to speak.  Adam is told to be fruitful and multiply, to subdue the earth and exercise dominion over the beasts, over all the fish, the birds, all the living creatures.  We will see as the story progresses that he fails to exercise authority over the animals, but he submits to the serpent.

Now in the same way that I believe that God created the literal material creation but I don’t see the early chapters of Genesis as being about that, I also believe that human beings do have dominion over the animals, but I don’t know that this text is about that.  Throughout the bible there numerous texts where beasts, animals represent people.  I could spend an hour multiplying texts to prove this point, but I’ll just point to one that is blatant – Acts 10 with Peter’s vision of the clean and unclean animals – God makes it clear that the “unclean” animals represent gentiles.

All that to say I see man outside of the Adamic line as being brute beasts, of the flesh, natural and those were the ones over whom God’s covenant people were to exercise authority (we see this played out later in the life of Israel when in good standing with God, they subdued the nations and were the head, not the tail).  It also follows that the serpent we are about to encounter in chapter 3 is not a literal snake but an adversary, much like the brood of vipers to whom JTB referred (Pharisees).

So chapter one ended with Adam/man being created in God’s image, given the directive to be fruitful, multiply and subdue the earth, to rule and reign essentially as God’s vice regent.  We will see how Adam fails in this task and that a second Adam will be necessary to come along later and do this the right way.

Now, chapter 2 opens thus:

Thus the heavens and the earth were completed, and all their hosts. By the seventh day God completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He rested from all His work which God had created [a]and made.

A lot of brilliant scholars have pointed out that this seven – day creation text resembles a temple dedication and suggest that the creation account here refers to the creation of the cosmic temple and on the 7th day, God takes up his residence in his completed temple beginning his reign.

4This is the account (lit- these are the generations) of the heavens and the earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made earth and heaven. Now no shrub of the field was yet in the earth, and no plant of the field had yet sprouted, for the Lord God had not sent rain upon the earth, and there was no man tocultivate the ground. But amist used to rise from the earth and water the whole surface of the ground. Then the Lord God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living (soul) being. The Lord God planted a garden toward the east, in Eden; and there He placed the man whom He had formed. Out of the ground the Lord God caused to grow every tree that is pleasing to the sight and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

10 Now a river [g]flowed out of Eden to water the garden; and from there it divided and became four [h]rivers. 11 The name of the first is Pishon; it [i]flows around the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. 12 The gold of that land is good; the bdellium and the onyx stone are there. 13 The name of the second river is Gihon; it [j]flows around the whole land of Cush. 14 The name of the third river is [k]Tigris; it [l]flows east of Assyria. And the fourth river is the [m]Euphrates.

15 Then the Lord God took the man and put him into the garden of Eden to cultivate it and keep it.

A few things going on here.

1)     Adam becomes a living soul ( want to discuss the nature of this soul – mortal)

2)    God plants a garden in which there is a tree of life and a tree of knowledge of good and evil

3)    God puts Adam in the garden to cultivate and keep it.

There is no way that I could develop this here, but if you’re interested in further study, GK Beale has an article online entitled “Garden Temple” and it is a fascinating read.  This concept of the Garden as a Temple suggests that Adam serves as the priest and king.  Let me just read you the opening lines from that article.  “It is particularly interesting that among the preceding cultic affinities drawn between Eden and Israel’s temple was the observation that the word pair usually translated as “cultivate” [‘abad] and “keep” [shamar] occur together in the Old Testament elsewhere referring only either to Israelites “serving” God and “guarding” (keeping) God’s word (approximately 10 times), or to priests who “keep” the “service” (or “charge”) of the tabernacle (5 times). Not only does Genesis 1-2 portray Adam as a kingly gardener but one who performs acts of worshipful obedience in doing so. Consequently, he is being portrayed as a priest in this task.”

The story continues:

16 The Lord God commanded the man, saying, “From any tree of the garden you may eat freely; 17 but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not[n]eat, for in the day that you eat from it you will surely die.”

Now, I believe that the tree of life represents Christ but the tree of knowledge of good and evil represents the law.  (I think the NT sheds light on this)

18 Then the Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone; I will make him a helper [o]suitable for him.” 19 Out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field and every bird of the [p]sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them; and whatever the man called a living creature, that was its name. 20 The man gave names to all the cattle, and to the birds of the [q]sky, and to every beast of the field, but for [r]Adam there was not found a helper [s]suitable for him. 21 So the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; then He took one of his ribs and closed up the flesh at that place. 22 The Lord God [t]fashioned into a woman the rib which He had taken from the man, and brought her to the man. 23 The man said,

“This is now bone of my bones,
And flesh of my flesh;
[u]She shall be called [v]Woman,
Because [w]she was taken out of [x]Man.”

24 For this reason a man shall leave his father and his mother, and be joined to his wife; and they shall become one flesh. 25 And the man and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.

Now recall that in the garden there is a tree of life and a tree of knowledge of good and evil.  God told Adam do not eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil.  And Adam and his wife were both naked and were not ashamed.

Now the serpent was more crafty than any beast of the field which the Lord God had made. And he said to the woman, “Indeed, has God said, ‘You shall not eat from [a]any tree of the garden’?”

Again, though I once did, I don’t believe that the serpent here is a literal talking animal (although a donkey did speak in Numbers and I believe that really happened), but I see this serpent as an adversary, a crafty individual from outside of the Adamites.  And this individual is trying to get Eve to transgress the covenant, the command.

The woman said to the serpent, “From the fruit of the trees of the garden we may eat; but from the fruit of the tree which is in the middle of the garden, God has said, ‘You shall not eat from it or touch it, or you will die.’” The serpent said to the woman, “You surely will not die! For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.”

Now, notice what is happening here.  According to God, when would they die if they ate?  In the day that they ate (Gen 2:17).  The serpent says that she wouldn’t die, but their eyes would be opened and they would be like God knowing good and evil.  So who is telling the truth here?  God or the serpent?

When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate. Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together and made themselves [b]loin coverings.

So their eyes were opened, like the serpent said and they didn’t die THAT DAY like God said – Gen 5:5 says Adam lived 930 years.  So did God lie?  Cannot.  So the death they died that day was not a physical death as we will see, the text defines the death.  Nonetheless, what happens here?  They were already naked before the command came and they were not ashamed.  They had a clear conscience.  I believe they were already sinning in the sense that they were living selfishly, perhaps lying and who knows what else and that sounds like speculation, but I think that is what scripture teaches.

But NOW that they had violated the direct command they had knowledge of good and evil, they knew that they were naked, they were vulnerable before God, ashamed, guilty, they stood condemned.  They became aware of their mortality and utterly exposed position in God’s sight.  In their nakedness, they attempted by their own works to hide their guilt by creating a covering out of fig leaves.  (works of the law can not suffice to make man right before God, cannot erase THE sin)

They heard the sound of the Lord God walking in the garden in the [c]cool of the day,and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the Lord God among the trees of the garden. Then the Lord God called to the man, and said to him, “Where are you?” 10 He said, “I heard the sound of You in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid myself.” 11 And He said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree of which I commanded you not to eat?” 12 The man said, “The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me from the tree, and I ate.” 13 Then the Lord God said to the woman, “What is this you have done?” And the woman said, “The serpent deceived me, and I ate.” 14 The Lord God said to the serpent,

“Because you have done this,
Cursed are you more than all cattle,
And more than every beast of the field;
On your belly you will go,
And dust you will eat
All the days of your life;
15 And I will put enmity
Between you and the woman,
And between your seed and her seed;
He shall [d]bruise you on the head,
And you shall bruise him on the heel.”
16 To the woman He said,
“I will greatly multiply
Your pain [e]in childbirth,
In pain you will bring forth children;
Yet your desire will be for your husband,
And he will rule over you.”

17 Then to Adam He said, “Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree about which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat from it’;

Cursed is the ground because of you;
In [f]toil you will eat of it
All the days of your life.
18 “Both thorns and thistles it shall grow for you;
And you will eat the [g]plants of the field;
19 By the sweat of your face
You will eat bread,
Till you return to the ground,
Because from it you were taken;
For you are dust,
And to dust you shall return.”

20 Now the man called his wife’s name [h]Eve, because she was the mother of all the living. 21 The Lord God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them.

22 Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of Us, knowing good and evil; and now, he might stretch out his hand, and take also from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever”— (see, clearly he was created mortal and would not have lived forever without partaking of the tree of life, which again I believe is Christ) 23 therefore the Lord God sent him out from the garden of Eden, to cultivate the ground from which he was taken. 24 So He drove the man out; and at the east of the garden of Eden He stationed the cherubim and the flaming sword which turned every direction to guard the way to the tree of life.

 

A lot going on here.  Curses for the covenant people for disobedience to the command (we see this recapitulated in Israel – think Deut 28).

Note also that God made garments of skin and clothed them.  I believe that this shows the contrast between man’s works of trying to clothe himself and the work of God in clothing man.  Without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.  So an animal had to die to make atonement for their sin – we find continuity there with Israel’s sacrificial system in days to come.

Now, what did God say would be the result of transgressing the command?  Death on the day he ate.  But on the day, he didn’t die a biological death.  He lived for another 930 years.  So the death he died that day was more of a covenantal death or a fellowship death.  In short, exile.  He was banished from the garden from the presence of God.

However, there is also in 3:15 what most scholars see as the first promise of a redeemer with reference to the seed of the woman.  That her seed would be at enmity with the seed of the serpent.  I believe we see this enmity in John 8 when her seed Jesus is at enmity with those he calls the children of the devil, a brood of vipers Matt 23:33.  This redeemer would provide the ultimate clothing because the blood of bulls and goats could never take away sin, but would only serve as an annual reminder of sins.  Guilt and shame would remain until fully clothed with the righteousness of Christ.

The text says Eve is the mother of all the living.  So for those who are in Christ are the living because he is the way the truth and the LIFE.  Thus, I believe that just as the death here is not biological, but covenantal so also is life.  She is the one from whom Christ (the seed) would come in whom there is life.  Again, I don’t think this means that she is the mother of all humanity.

Adam is no longer innocent.  Now, I believe that Adam was sinning before he was given the command.  But he was unashamed, had no conscious awareness of his guilt because there was no command.

Romans 7:7-11 (YLT) 7 What, then, shall we say? the law [is] sin? let it not be! but the sin I did not know except through law, for also the covetousness I had not known if the law had not said:

8 `Thou shalt not covet;’ and the sin having received an opportunity, through the command, did work in me all covetousness — for apart from law sin is dead.

9 And I was alive apart from law once, and the command having come, the sin revived, and I died;

10 and the command that [is] for life, this was found by me for death;

11 for the sin, having received an opportunity, through the command, did deceive me, and through it did slay [me];

 

Romans 5:12-14 ESV Therefore, just as [the] sin came into the world through one man, and [the] death through [the] sin, and so [the] death spread to all men because all sinned– (13) for sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. (14) Yet [the] death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sinning was not like the transgression of Adam, who was [is] a type of the one who was to come [is about to be].

1 Corinthians 15:45-49 NASB So also it is written, “The first MAN, Adam, BECAME A LIVING SOUL.” The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. (46) However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual. (47) The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven. (48) As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly. (49) Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.

 

Now Paul says we have borne the image of the earthy.  Paul was an Israelite.  The Israelites were descendants of the Adamites and thus were in the image of Adam.  Gen 5 in the lineage of Seth, the covenant line.  BUT the redeemer the second Adam would come in the image of the invisible God and would redeem those under law and Paul looked forward to his covenant people being transformed from their OC mode of existence under the Law to the NC mode of existence in Christ.  So a covenantal corporate body transition from Adam to Christ.  From the old man to the new man.  Old creation to new creation.

Story goes like this: in the garden.  Sinning but not aware of sin because there is no law saying do not.  Law comes and sin becomes a reality because the law is transgressed.  Man realizes he is naked.  Guilty conscience, seeking to justify self by sewing fig leaves, but fear of God’s wrath abides.  Man’s works cannot save him, cannot make him right before God, cannot render him innocent.  The wages of sin is death.  God’s face is turned away and man is cast from God’s presence into exile, banished from his garden.  Moses comes along and gives not one but ten commandments.  Oh wait, that’s just the bullet point summary statement, he gives over 600 commands.  And what does this do?  Amplifies sin, shows that works cannot save man or bring him into a right standing with God or render him innocent.  Through the OC system, however, a provisional system was set up with the sacrifices.  But again this only served as an annual reminder that man cannot come into the presence of God in the holy of holies.  Then comes the second Adam Christ.  He lives perfectly, sinlessly in obedience to the father.  God makes a sacrifice – his son, shedding the perfect blood to atone for sin and those who place their faith in what God did and clothe themselves in Christ are justified, rendered innocent.  Adam in the garden before eating the fruit was naked, but he was innocent.  The command came, he broke it, saw his nakedness, and was rendered guilty.  He died.  But in Christ, while we are aware of our sin, we have knowledge of good and evil, we are also clothed in Christ, so we don’t have the guilt, shame, and condemnation that was upon those in Adam.

And as God’s image bearers, as those in Christ, we are to rule and reign with him, and subdue the earth, practicing dominion over it.  Whereas under the Old covenant, the be fruitful and multiply subduing the earth was physical – that meant have lots of babies so your army can be big and you can win war against other nations making them subject to you, for those of us in Christ in the Kingdom, we make the nations, those outside of Christ subject to God not through the sword but through the word, we simply preach the gospel, which takes brute beasts and turns them into men of God who bear his heavenly image.  We don’t use force or coercion, but exercise dominion over the beasts by bringing them into the kingdom through the preaching of the gospel and the spirit of God does the work.  They go from a carnal fleshly state to a spiritual state and the carnality of the flesh – the murder, strife, envy etc, is superseded by the fruit of the spirit: love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self control.

Rev 5:10 You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth.”

And the biggest thing here is that now for those in Christ, God’s face is not turned away but is smiling upon his people because they are justified, rendered innocent.  Though we still sin, though we are still selfish at times, he doesn’t see us naked and guilty, he sees us as righteous for we have the righteousness of Christ.

Possibly the most important practical point for us is that we are not under law, but under grace. We are in a new and better garden than Adam – one that depends not on our obedience to law, but on faith in Christ who fulfilled the Law on our behalf. If we were under law, then it depends on us to obey that law perfectly, which again is a clothing of works and not God’s clothing of Christ’s righteousness.

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And remember in the beginning framework, I pointed out that God alone was immortal, that man was mortal.  Now look at what is brought forth with the finished work of Christ.

2 Tim 1:9-10  He has saved us and called us to a holy life—not because of anything we have done but because of his own purpose and grace. This grace was given us in Christ Jesus before the beginning of time, 10 but it has now been revealed through the appearing of our Savior, Christ Jesus, who has destroyed death and has brought life and immortality to light through the gospel.

So mortal man is given the gift of eternal life and immortality through the gospel and this again is not the result of works, but the gift of God by his glorious grace.

What humanity has in Christ is far better than what Adam had in the Garden before he fell.